Volume 6, Issue 3, September 2020, Page: 75-85
Impacts of On-Street Parking Fees in Suburbs
Albania Nissan, Division for Transport Planning, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
Ioannis Ntriankos, The Swedish Transport Administration, Stockholm, Sweden
Jonas Eliasson, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden
Per Näsman, Center for Safety Research, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
Maria Börjesson, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
Received: Jul. 14, 2020;       Accepted: Aug. 18, 2020;       Published: Sep. 10, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijtet.20200603.12      View  27      Downloads  46
Street parking fees are common in many cities across the world. Knowledge on how such fees impact parking demand is crucial for designing charging schemes. Empirical studies of parking fees are however scares and often hampered by a lack of data systematically collected before and after policy changes. Moreover, almost all studies analyzing the impact of fees on parking demand focuses on dense city centers. This paper aims as showing how on-street parking count conducted before and after the introduction of parking fees of in the suburbs of Stockholm impact parking demand. This paper analyses data conducted before and after the implementation of the new parking policy in 2017, where on-street parking fees were introduced for the first time in the inner suburbs. At the same time, the amount of the fee was also increased in the inner city. Moreover, the fine was raised for the parking ticket issued to cars parked in breach of parking regulations. We find a 35-40 percent reduction in the number of parked cars in response to the introduction of parking fees in the suburbs. However, the increase in the parking fees in the inner city had a substantially lower effect or no effect at all on demand. The effect of increasing the amount of the fine had no impact on the number of the cars violating parking restrictions.
Parking, On-street Parking, Parking Fees, Demand, Occupancy Rate, Parking Ticket, Suburbs
To cite this article
Albania Nissan, Ioannis Ntriankos, Jonas Eliasson, Per Näsman, Maria Börjesson, Impacts of On-Street Parking Fees in Suburbs, International Journal of Transportation Engineering and Technology. Vol. 6, No. 3, 2020, pp. 75-85. doi: 10.11648/j.ijtet.20200603.12
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
D. C. Shoup, “Cruising for parking”, Transp. Policy, vol. 13, nr 6, s. 479–486, nov. 2006, doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2006.05.005.
O. Cats, C. Zhang, och A. Nissan, “Survey methodology for measuring parking occupancy: Impacts of an on-street parking pricing scheme in an urban center”, Transp. Policy, vol. 47, s. 55–63, apr. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2015.12.008.
E. Madsen, I. Mulalic, och N. Pilegaard, ”A model for estimation of the demand for on-street parking”, MPRA Paper 52301, dec. 2013. Åtkomstdatum: sep. 30, 2019. [Online]. Tillgänglig vid: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/52361/.
G. Marsden, “The evidence base for parking policies—a review”, Transp. Policy, vol. 13, nr 6, s. 447–457, nov. 2006, doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2006.05.009.
D. B. Ottosson, C. Chen, T. Wang, och H. Lin, “The sensitivity of on-street parking demand in response to price changes: A case study in Seattle, WA”, Transp. Policy, vol. 25, s. 222–232, jan. 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2012.11.013.
S. Concas och N. Nayak, “A Meta-analysis of Parking Pricing Elasticity”, presenterad vid Transportation Research Board 91st Annual MeetingTransportation Research Board, 2012, Åtkomstdatum: sep. 30, 2019. [Online]. Tillgänglig vid: https://trid.trb.org/view/1130741.
M. B. W. Kobus, E. Gutiérrez-i-Puigarnau, P. Rietveld, och J. N. Van Ommeren, “The on-street parking premium and car drivers’ choice between street and garage parking”, Reg. Sci. Urban Econ., vol. 43, nr 2, s. 395–403, mar. 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.regsciurbeco.2012.10.001.
J. Simićević, S. Vukanović, och N. Milosavljević, “The effect of parking charges and time limit to car usage and parking behaviour”, Transp. Policy, vol. 30, s. 125–131, nov. 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2013.09.007.
J. A. Kelly och J. P. Clinch, “Temporal variance of revealed preference on-street parking price elasticity”, Transp. Policy, vol. 16, nr 4, s. 193–199, aug. 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2009.06.001.
A. Gragera och D. Albalate, “The impact of curbside parking regulation on garage demand”, Transp. Policy, vol. 47, s. 160–168, apr. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2016.02.002.
K. Huang, Z. Liu, T. Zhu, I. Kim, och K. An, “Analysis of the acceptance of park-and-ride by users: A cumulative logistic regression approach”, J. Transp. Land Use, vol. 12, nr 1, juli 2019, doi: 10.5198/jtlu.2019.1390.
L. Márquez, L. F. Macea, och J. J. Soto, “Willingness to change car use to commute to the UPTC main campus, Colombia: A hybrid discrete choice modeling approach”, J. Transp. Land Use, vol. 12, nr 1, maj 2019, doi: 10.5198/jtlu.2019.1460.
R. J. Schneider, “Local environment characteristics associated with walking and taking transit to shopping districts”, 2015, doi: 10.5198/jtlu.2015.666.
D. S. Vale, M. Pereira, och C. M. Viana, “Different destination, different commuting pattern? Analyzing the influence of the campus location on commuting”, J. Transp. Land Use, vol. 11, nr 1, s. 1–18, 2018.
P. van den Berg, K. Geurs, S. Vinken, och T. Arentze, “Stated choice model of transport modes including solar bike”, J. Transp. Land Use, vol. 11, nr 1, s. 901–919, 2018.
S. A. H. Zahabi, L. F. Miranda-Moreno, Z. Patterson, och P. Barla, “Evaluating the effects of land use and strategies for parking and transit supply on mode choice of downtown commuters”, J. Transp. Land Use, vol. 5, nr 2, okt. 2012, doi: 10.5198/jtlu.v5i2.260.
G. Albert och D. Mahalel, “Congestion tolls and parking fees: A comparison of the potential effect on travel behavior”, Transp. Policy, vol. 13, nr 6, s. 496–502, nov. 2006, doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2006.05.007.
D. A. Tsamboulas, “Parking fare thresholds: a policy tool”, Transp. Policy, vol. 8, nr 2, s. 115–124, apr. 2001, doi: 10.1016/S0967-070X(00)00040-8.
W.-S. Ng, “Work schedule flexibility and parking preferences”, 2017, doi: 10.5198/jtlu.2016.554.
L. Lehe, “Feedback and the use of land for parking”, J. Transp. Land Use, vol. 10, nr 1, s. 463–476, 2017.
R. Arnott, E. Inci, och J. Rowse, “Downtown curbside parking capacity”, J. Urban Econ., vol. 86, s. 83–97, mar. 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.jue.2014.12.005.
S. Brooke, S. Ison, och M. Quddus, “On-street parking search: A UK local authority perspective”, J. Transp. Land Use, vol. 10, nr 1, s. 13–26, 2017, doi: 10.5198/jtlu.2015.600.
S. P. Anderson och A. de Palma, “The economics of pricing parking”, J. Urban Econ., vol. 55, nr 1, s. 1–20, jan. 2004, doi: 10.1016/j.jue.2003.06.004.
J. (Brian) Lee, D. Agdas, och D. Baker, “Cruising for parking: New empirical evidence and influential factors on cruising time”, J. Transp. Land Use, vol. 10, nr 1, okt. 2017, doi: 10.5198/jtlu.2017.1142.
R. Cervero, “Sustainable new towns: Stockholm’s rail-served satellites”, Cities, vol. 12, nr 1, s. 41–51, feb. 1995, doi: 10.1016/0264-2751(95)91864-C.
Stockholm City Planning Administration, “Stockholm City Plan Summary, May 2009”. 2009, [Online]. Tillgänglig vid: www.stockholm.se.
J. Eliasson, “Lessons from the Stockholm congestion charging trial”, Transp. Policy, vol. 15, nr 6, s. 395–404, nov. 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2008.12.004.
M. Börjesson och I. Kristoffersson, “The Swedish congestion charges: Ten years on”, Transp. Res. Part Policy Pract., vol. 107, nr Supplement C, s. 35–51, jan. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.tra.2017.11.001.
M. Börjesson, J. Eliasson, M. B. Hugosson, och K. Brundell-Freij, “The Stockholm congestion charges—5 years on. Effects, acceptability and lessons learnt”, Transp. Policy, vol. 20, s. 1–12, mar. 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2011.11.001.
P. Goodwin, J. Dargay, och M. Hanly, “Elasticities of road traffic and fuel consumption with respect to price and income: a review”, Transp. Rev., vol. 24, nr 3, s. 275–292, 2004.
A. Millard-Ball, R. R. Weinberger, och R. C. Hampshire, “Is the curb 80% full or 20% empty? Assessing the impacts of San Francisco’s parking pricing experiment”, Transp. Res. Part Policy Pract., vol. 63, s. 76–92, maj 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.tra.2014.02.016.
P. Olszewski och L. Xie, “Traffic Demand Elasticity with Respect to Road Pricing -- Some Evidence from Singapore”, Proc. Int. Conf. Seamless Sustain. Transp, 2002. Åtkomstdatum: juli 02, 2016. [Online]. Tillgänglig vid: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Piotr_Olszewski2/publication/261712681_Traffic_demand_elasticity_with_respect_to_road_pricing__some_evidence_from_Singapore/links/0a85e53540cb5a2fcd000000.pdf.
K. Shampanier, N. Mazar, och D. Ariely, “Zero as a special price: The true value of free products”, Mark. Sci., vol. 26, nr 6, s. 742–757, 2007.
Browse journals by subject